L – Arginine
L-arginine is a chemical building block called "an amino acid." It is obtained from the diet and is necessary for the body to make proteins. L-arginine is found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. It can also be made in a laboratory and used as medicine.
L-arginine is most commonly used for recovery after surgery, a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia), and heart and blood vessel conditions, such as chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure. It is also used for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
Is a Form of:
Recovery after surgery
Also Known As:
Arg, Arginine, Arginine Ethyl Ester
How Does It Work?
L-arginine is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide. Nitric oxide causes blood vessels to open wider for improved blood flow. L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body.
- Chest pain (angina). Taking L-arginine seems to decrease symptoms and improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in people with angina. However, L-arginine does not seem to help widen the blood vessels that are narrowed in angina.
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Taking 5 grams of L-arginine by mouth daily seems to improve sexual function in men with ED. Taking lower doses might not be effective. However, there is some early evidence that taking L-arginine with maritime pine bark extract and other ingredients, might improve the effectiveness of low-dose L-arginine for ED.
- High blood pressure. There is evidence that taking L-arginine by mouth can reduce blood pressure in healthy people, people with high blood pressure, and people with slightly high blood pressure with or without diabetes.
- A serious intestinal disease in premature infants (necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC). Adding L-arginine to formula seems to prevent inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants. A total of 6 premature infants need to receive arginine to prevent one instance of digestive tract inflammation.
- Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Research shows that taking L-arginine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) for up to 8 weeks increases blood flow in people with peripheral arterial disease. However, long-term use (up to 6 months) does not improve walking speed or distance in these same people.
- A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Most research shows that L-arginine can reduce blood pressure in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. L-arginine also seems to keep pregnant women from developing pre-eclampsia.
- High blood pressure during pregnancy. Taking L-arginine intravenously (by IV) can reduce blood pressure in pregnant women who develop high blood pressure. It's unclear if taking L-arginine by mouth lowers blood pressure during pregnancy, but it might decrease the need to take blood pressure lowering drugs.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For chest pain (angina): 2-6 grams three times per day for up to one month.
- For erectile dysfunction (ED): 5 grams per day. Taking lower doses might not be effective.
- For high blood pressure: 4-24 grams per day for 2-24 weeks.
- For narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease): 6-24 grams for up to 8 weeks.
- For a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia): 3 grams per day for up to 3 weeks for the treatment of pre-eclampsia, and 3 grams per day starting at 20 weeks gestation for the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Two bars of a medical food (Heart Bars) with arginine 6.6 grams and antioxidant vitamins per day starting at 14-32 weeks gestation and continuing until delivery for the prevention of pre-eclampsia.
- For high blood pressure during pregnancy: 4 grams per day for 10-12 weeks.
- For narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease): 16 grams for up to 8 weeks.
- For a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia): 20 grams per day for up to 5 days or one 30 gram dose.
- For high blood pressure during pregnancy: 20 grams per day for up to 5 days.
- For a serious intestinal disease in premature infants (necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC): 261 mg/kg added to oral feedings daily for the first 28 days of life.
L – Arginine Supplements Frequently Asked Questions
What is L Arginine used for?
L-arginine is a nonessential amino acid that may play an important role in the treatment of heart disease due to its block arterial plaque buildup, blood clots, platelet clumping, and to increase blood flow through the coronary artery.
What does l arginine do sexually?
L-arginine is the amino acid used to make nitric oxide, a molecule that facilitates the flow of blood to the penis during an erection, and is the most common amino acid found in sexual supplements. It's unclear, however, whether a pill form of L-arginine helps with sexual stimulation.
How much l arginine should I take daily?
There is no standard dose of arginine. Studies have used different amounts for different conditions. One common dosage is 2 to 3 grams three times a day, although lower and higher doses have also been studied.
Is L Arginine safe to take daily?
There is no recommended daily amount established for arginine, because the human body normally makes enough. If taken as a supplement, higher doses of arginine are often needed, and up to 1200 mg per day have been shown to be helpful. Before taking it, discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
Does arginine cause weight gain?
Healthy weight loss: L-arginine reduces fat mass and increases muscle mass. L-arginine is known to increase the activity of insulin, which manipulates hormones that metabolize fats. It also increases strength for exercises, thus making it effective in a weight loss program.
Does L Arginine make you last longer in bed?
Boost L-arginine Consumption
L-arginine is an essential amino acid that can be converted to nitric oxide, which can help relax the blood vessels of the penis and increase blood flow and erection quality. Soy and vegetables are good sources of L-arginine.
How long does it take for l arginine to work?
Taking L-arginine by mouth seems to reduce pain and some symptoms of bladder inflammation, although improvements may take 3 months to occur.
Is 5000 mg of L Arginine too much?
There is no recommended daily amount established for arginine, because the human body normally makes enough. If taken as a supplement, higher doses of arginine are often needed, and up to 1200 mg per day have been shown to be helpful. Before taking it, discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
Why is arginine bad?
In clinical trials, arginine has been used safely with minor side effects for up to three months. Possible side effects include abdominal pain and bloating, diarrhea, and gout. It may also cause a worsening of breathing in people with asthma. Arginine may interact with certain medications that lower blood pressure.
Does L Arginine increase testosterone?
L-arginine also stimulates the release of growth hormone, insulin, and other substances in the body. Testosterone is something the human body naturally understands, using it to push energy and give your body the burst of strength needed when lifting heavy weights.
What is L Arginine 1000 mg used for?
L-arginine has two effects: it turns into nitric oxide and helps the body build protein. These effects give L-arginine an array of potential benefits that range from heart health and chest pain to helping to build muscles, repair wounds, and improve male fertility.
Is L Arginine worth taking?
Generally safe. L-arginine is considered to be generally safe and might be effective at lowering blood pressure, reducing the symptoms of angina and treating erectile dysfunction due to a physical cause. However, if you take a blood pressure drug, talk to your doctor before using L-arginine.
Is L Arginine and Arginine the same thing?
Arginine, or L-arginine, is an amino acid that is made in the body.
Does L Arginine affect kidneys?
In the setting of ischemic acute renal failure, the administration of L-arginine had a beneficial effect on GFR and RPF, decreased O2- production, diminished up-regulation of soluble guanylate cyclase, and prevented up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).
Does arginine cause hair loss?
Similarly, hair tonics containing the amino acid L-Arginine aren't proven to help: in fact L-Arginine can raise testosterone levels which may actually worsen your hair loss. Wigs and hairpieces obviously won't prevent hair loss but do offer an effective substitute.
Is Too Much L Arginine bad for you?
As with any supplement, a person should use it with caution. Although L-arginine is considered safe in moderate doses, too much L-arginine can have severe side effects, including death. It is important to understand how the supplement may interact with the body and with additional medications before taking it.
What are the side effects of L Arginine?
Oral use of L-arginine might cause:
- Abdominal pain.
- Allergic response.
- Airway inflammation or worsening of asthma symptoms.
Is L Arginine a fat burner?
L-Arginine Reduces Fat and Waist Circumference. Researchers, writing in the November 2006 American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism published a study demonstrating the weight-loss benefits of high doses of the amino acid L-Arginine.
Is L Arginine good for belly fat?
L-arginine may help blast belly fat
A pilot study measured the effects of L-arginine taken daily for 12 weeks on healthy persons. Evidences show that L-arginine has weight loss promoting powers and found useful in treating central, or visceral obesity. In this case, L-arginine then may help blast belly fast.
Can you take arginine and caffeine together?
“Combinations of caffeine with L-arginine or with taurine can enhance the effect of caffeine, but the mechanisms remain elusive.” “The decrease in adipose tissue weight was greater with a mixture of arginine and caffeine , and much greater with TACC than with arginine or caffeine alone.”
What foods are high in L Arginine?
Boost your arginine intake with these 10 foods:
- You'll find the highest amount of argininein turkey breast.
- Pork loin. Pork loin, another high-protein food, comes in a close second with an argininecontent of 14 grams per rib.
- Pumpkin seeds.
- ^ ab Figueroa A, et al. Watermelon extract supplementation reduces ankle blood pressure and carotid augmentation index in obese adults with prehypertension or hypertension. Am J Hypertens. (2012)
- ^ ab Corpas E, et al. Oral arginine-lysine does not increase growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor-I in old men. J Gerontol. (1993)
- ^ ab Buford BN, Koch AJ. Glycine-arginine-alpha-ketoisocaproic acid improves performance of repeated cycling sprints. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2004)
- ^ ab Stevens BR, et al. High-intensity dynamic human muscle performance enhanced by a metabolic intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2000)
- ^Wu G, Morris SM Jr. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond. Biochem J. (1998)
- ^Arginine metabolism in mammals.
- ^Malinauskas BM, et al. Supplements of interest for sport-related injury and sources of supplement information among college athletes. Adv Med Sci. (2007)
- ^Tharakan JF, et al. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet. Clin Nutr. (2008)
- ^ ab c de Jonge WJ, et al. Overexpression of arginase I in enterocytes of transgenic mice elicits a selective arginine deficiency and affects skin, muscle, and lymphoid development. Am J Clin Nutr. (2002)
- ^de Jonge WJ, et al. Arginine deficiency affects early B cell maturation and lymphoid organ development in transgenic mice. J Clin Invest. (2002)
- ^de Jonge WJ, et al. Overexpression of arginase alters circulating and tissue amino acids and guanidino compounds and affects neuromotor behavior in mice. J Nutr. (2001)
- ^Kwikkers KL, et al. Effect of arginine deficiency on arginine-dependent post-translational protein modifications in mice. Br J Nutr. (2005)
- ^ ab Morris CR, et al. Dysregulated arginine metabolism, hemolysis-associated pulmonary hypertension, and mortality in sickle cell disease. JAMA. (2005)
- ^ ab Diabetes-induced Coronary Vascular Dysfunction Involves Increased Arginase Activity.
- ^Schramm L, et al. L-arginine deficiency and supplementation in experimental acute renal failure and in human kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. (2002)
- ^ ab Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects of Arginine and Related Amino Acids.
- ^Morris SM Jr. Recent advances in arginine metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2004)
- ^De Bandt JP, et al. Metabolism of ornithine, alpha-ketoglutarate and arginine in isolated perfused rat liver. Br J Nutr. (1995)
- ^Curis E, et al. Almost all about citrulline in mammals. Amino Acids. (2005)
- ^Plasma arginine and citrulline kinetics in adults given adequate and arginine-free diets.
- ^ ab c Häberle J, et al. Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders. Orphanet J Rare Dis. (2012)
- ^Bommarius AS, Makryaleas K, Drauz K. An enzymatic route to L-ornithine from L-arginine--activation and stabilization studies on L-arginase. Biomed Biochim Acta. (1991)
- ^Bommarius AS, Drauz K. An enzymatic route to L-ornithine from arginine--activation, selectivity and stabilization of L-arginase. Bioorg Med Chem. (1994)
- ^ ab Targeted cellular metabolism for cancer chemotherapy with recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes.
- ^Dai Z, et al. Nitric oxide and energy metabolism in mammals. Biofactors. (2013)
- ^ ab Molderings GJ, Haenisch B. Agmatine (decarboxylated L-arginine): physiological role and therapeutic potential. Pharmacol Ther. (2012)
- ^Regunathan S, Reis DJ. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase in rat brain and liver: distinction from ornithine decarboxylase. J Neurochem. (2000)
- ^Raasch W, et al. Agmatine, the bacterial amine, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues. Life Sci. (1995)
- ^Raasch W, et al. Agmatine is widely and unequally distributed in rat organs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (1995)
- ^Li G, et al. Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain. Science. (1994)
- ^ ab c d e f g Bode-Böger SM, et al. L-arginine-induced vasodilation in healthy humans: pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (1998)
- ^ ab c d Tangphao O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (1999)
- ^White MF, Christensen HN. The two-way flux of cationic amino acids across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells is largely explained by a single transport system. J Biol Chem. (1982)
- ^White MF, Gazzola GC, Christensen HN. Cationic amino acid transport into cultured animal cells. I. Influx into cultured human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. (1982)
- ^MacLeod CL. Regulation of cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) gene expression. Biochem Soc Trans. (1996)
- ^MacLeod CL, Finley KD, Kakuda DK. y(+)-type cationic amino acid transport: expression and regulation of the mCAT genes. J Exp Biol. (1994)
- ^Identification and Characterization of a Membrane Protein (y+L Amino Acid Transporter-1) That Associates with 4F2hc to Encode the Amino Acid Transport Activity y+L A CANDIDATE GENE FOR LYSINURIC PROTEIN INTOLERANCE.
- ^Verrey F, et al. New glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. J Membr Biol. (1999)
- ^ ab c Dall'Asta V, et al. Arginine transport through system y(+)L in cultured human fibroblasts: normal phenotype of cells from LPI subjects. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. (2000)
- ^ ab c d e Collier SR, Casey DP, Kanaley JA. Growth hormone responses to varying doses of oral arginine. Growth Horm IGF Res. (2005)
- ^ ab Jabecka A, et al. Oral L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild arterial hypertension and its effect on plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-citruline, L-arginine and antioxidant status. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2012)
- ^ ab c d e Wilson AM, et al. L-arginine supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: no benefit and possible harm. Circulation. (2007)
- ^ ab Teerlink T. Letter by Teerlink regarding article, "L-arginine supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: no benefit and possible harm". Circulation. (2008)
- ^Bliss TV, Collingridge GL. A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature. (1993)
- ^Hawkins RD, Kandel ER, Siegelbaum SA. Learning to modulate transmitter release: themes and variations in synaptic plasticity. Annu Rev Neurosci. (1993)
- ^ ab Huang EP. Synaptic plasticity: a role for nitric oxide in LTP. Curr Biol. (1997)
- ^ ab Schuman EM, Madison DV. A requirement for the intercellular messenger nitric oxide in long-term potentiation. Science. (1991)
- ^Arancio O, et al. Nitric oxide acts directly in the presynaptic neuron to produce long-term potentiation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Cell. (1996)
- ^Bartus K, Pigott B, Garthwaite J. Cellular targets of nitric oxide in the hippocampus. PLoS One. (2013)
- ^ ab O'Dell TJ, et al. Endothelial NOS and the blockade of LTP by NOS inhibitors in mice lacking neuronal NOS. Science. (1994)
- ^Endothelial nitric oxide synthase localized to hippocampal pyramidal cells: implications for synaptic plasticity.
- ^ ab c Son H, et al. Long-term potentiation is reduced in mice that are doubly mutant in endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Cell. (1996)
- ^Sakoda T, et al. Myristoylation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase is important for extracellular release of nitric oxide. Mol Cell Biochem. (1995)
- ^Kantor DB, et al. A role for endothelial NO synthase in LTP revealed by adenovirus-mediated inhibition and rescue. Science. (1996)
- ^Lameu C, de Camargo AC, Faria M. L-arginine signalling potential in the brain: the peripheral gets central. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. (2009)
- ^Flam BR, Eichler DC, Solomonson LP. Endothelial nitric oxide production is tightly coupled to the citrulline-NO cycle. Nitric Oxide. (2007)
- ^Xie L, Gross SS. Argininosuccinate synthetase overexpression in vascular smooth muscle cells potentiates immunostimulant-induced NO production. J Biol Chem. (1997)
- ^Husson A, et al. Argininosuccinate synthetase from the urea cycle to the citrulline-NO cycle. Eur J Biochem. (2003)
- ^Matarredona ER, et al. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition increases proliferation of neural precursors isolated from the postnatal mouse subventricular zone. Brain Res. (2004)
- ^Stoop R, Poo MM. Synaptic modulation by neurotrophic factors. Prog Brain Res. (1996)
- ^Lo DC. Neurotrophic factors and synaptic plasticity. Neuron. (1995)
- ^Hsieh HY, et al. Nitric oxide regulates BDNF release from nodose ganglion neurons in a pattern-dependent and cGMP-independent manner. J Neurosci Res. (2010)
- ^Lameu C, et al. Interactions between the NO-citrulline cycle and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in differentiation of neural stem cells. J Biol Chem. (2012)
- ^Kirschbaum C, Pirke KM, Hellhammer DH. The 'Trier Social Stress Test'--a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology. (1993)
- ^ ab Jezova D, et al. Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutr Neurosci. (2005)
- ^Jezova D, et al. High trait anxiety in healthy subjects is associated with low neuroendocrine activity during psychosocial stress. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2004)
- ^Smriga M, et al. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed Res. (2007)
- ^Dietary L-Lysine Deficiency Increases Stress-Induced Anxiety and Fecal Excretion in Rats.
- ^Lysine fortiﬁcation reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in northwest Syria.
- ^Chang YF, Gao XM. L-lysine is a barbiturate-like anticonvulsant and modulator of the benzodiazepine receptor. Neurochem Res. (1995)
- ^Hasler WL. Lysine as a serotonin receptor antagonist: using the diet to modulate gut function. Gastroenterology. (2004)
- ^Smriga M, Torii K. L-Lysine acts like a partial serotonin receptor 4 antagonist and inhibits serotonin-mediated intestinal pathologies and anxiety in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2003)
- ^Smriga M, Torii K. Prolonged treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces stress-induced anxiety in an elevated plus maze. Nutr Neurosci. (2003)
- ^Joung HY, et al. The differential role of NOS inhibitors on stress-induced anxiety and neuroendocrine alterations in the rat. Behav Brain Res. (2012)
- ^Malinski T. Nitric oxide and nitroxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. (2007)
- ^McCann SM, et al. The nitric oxide theory of aging revisited. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (2005)
- ^ ab Calabrese V, et al. Nitric oxide in the central nervous system: neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity. Nat Rev Neurosci. (2007)
- ^Rushaidhi M, et al. Aging affects L-arginine and its metabolites in memory-associated brain structures at the tissue and synaptoneurosome levels. Neuroscience. (2012)
- ^Liu P, Jing Y, Zhang H. Age-related changes in arginine and its metabolites in memory-associated brain structures. Neuroscience. (2009)
- ^Neural plasticity in the ageing brain.
- ^Greenwood PM. Functional plasticity in cognitive aging: review and hypothesis. Neuropsychology. (2007)
- ^ ab Stuehr DJ. Structure-function aspects in the nitric oxide synthases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. (1997)
- ^Charles IG, et al. Expression of human nitric oxide synthase isozymes. Methods Enzymol. (1996)
- ^Casas JP, et al. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. (2006)
- ^Griffith OW, Stuehr DJ. Nitric oxide synthases: properties and catalytic mechanism. Annu Rev Physiol. (1995)
- ^Marletta MA. Nitric oxide synthase structure and mechanism. J Biol Chem. (1993)
- ^Masters BS. Nitric oxide synthases: why so complex. Annu Rev Nutr. (1994)
- ^Mayer B, et al. Brain nitric oxide synthase is a biopterin- and flavin-containing multi-functional oxido-reductase. FEBS Lett. (1991)
- ^Hevel JM, White KA, Marletta MA. Purification of the inducible murine macrophage nitric oxide synthase. Identification as a flavoprotein. J Biol Chem. (1991)
- ^Stuehr DJ, et al. Purification and characterization of the cytokine-induced macrophage nitric oxide synthase: an FAD- and FMN-containing flavoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1991)
- ^Mayer B, Hemmens B. Biosynthesis and action of nitric oxide in mammalian cells. Trends Biochem Sci. (1997)
- ^Ghosh DK, Abu-Soud HM, Stuehr DJ. Reconstitution of the second step in NO synthesis using the isolated oxygenase and reductase domains of macrophage NO synthase. Biochemistry. (1995)
- ^Lekakis JP, et al. Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. Int J Cardiol. (2002)
- ^L-Arginine and Atherothrombosis.
- ^ ab Lucotti P, et al. Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
- ^ ab c d e f Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance.
- ^ ab Fahs CA, Heffernan KS, Fernhall B. Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2009)
- ^ ab c Tang JE, et al. Bolus arginine supplementation affects neither muscle blood flow nor muscle protein synthesis in young men at rest or after resistance exercise. J Nutr. (2011)
- ^ ab c Alvares TS, et al. Acute l-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2012)
- ^Durante W, Johnson FK, Johnson RA. Arginase: a critical regulator of nitric oxide synthesis and vascular function. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. (2007)
- ^Baydoun AR, et al. Substrate-dependent regulation of intracellular amino acid concentrations in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (1990)
- ^Palmer RM, Ashton DS, Moncada S. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize nitric oxide from L-arginine. Nature. (1988)
- ^Cardounel AJ, et al. Evidence for the pathophysiological role of endogenous methylarginines in regulation of endothelial NO production and vascular function. J Biol Chem. (2007)
- ^ ab Hardy TA, May JM. Coordinate regulation of L-arginine uptake and nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. (2002)
- ^ ab Bode-Böger SM, Scalera F, Ignarro LJ. The L-arginine paradox: Importance of the L-arginine/asymmetrical dimethylarginine ratio. Pharmacol Ther. (2007)
- ^ ab Shin S, Mohan S, Fung HL. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: implications on the "L-arginine paradox". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2011)
- ^ ab c Liu TH, et al. No effect of short-term arginine supplementation on nitric oxide production, metabolism and performance in intermittent exercise in athletes. J Nutr Biochem. (2009)
- ^Tsukahara H, Gordienko DV, Goligorsky MS. Continuous monitoring of nitric oxide release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (1993)
- ^ ab Joshi MS, et al. Receptor-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthesis by arginine in endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2007)
- ^ ab McDonald KK, et al. A caveolar complex between the cationic amino acid transporter 1 and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase may explain the "arginine paradox". J Biol Chem. (1997)
- ^Zani BG, Bohlen HG. Transport of extracellular l-arginine via cationic amino acid transporter is required during in vivo endothelial nitric oxide production. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2005)
- ^Kone BC. Protein-protein interactions controlling nitric oxide synthases. Acta Physiol Scand. (2000)
- ^ ab Vallance P, et al. Accumulation of an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis in chronic renal failure. Lancet. (1992)
- ^ ab Böger RH, et al. Restoring vascular nitric oxide formation by L-arginine improves the symptoms of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. (1998)
- ^ ab Mittermayer F, et al. Asymmetric dimethylarginine predicts major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with advanced peripheral artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2006)
- ^ADMA, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, and Cardiovascular Risk.
- ^Effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) infusion in humans.
- ^Kielstein JT, et al. Cardiovascular effects of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition with asymmetrical dimethylarginine in humans. Circulation. (2004)
- ^ ab Cooke JP. Asymmetrical dimethylarginine: the Uber marker. Circulation. (2004)
- ^Leiper JM, et al. Identification of two human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases with distinct tissue distributions and homology with microbial arginine deiminases. Biochem J. (1999)
- ^Jacobi J, et al. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase reduces tissue asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and enhances angiogenesis. Circulation. (2005)
- ^Stühlinger MC, et al. Homocysteine impairs the nitric oxide synthase pathway: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine. Circulation. (2001)
- ^Drexler H, et al. Correction of endothelial dysfunction in coronary microcirculation of hypercholesterolaemic patients by L-arginine. Lancet. (1991)
- ^Ito A, et al. Novel mechanism for endothelial dysfunction: dysregulation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Circulation. (1999)
- ^Lin KY, et al. Impaired nitric oxide synthase pathway in diabetes mellitus: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Circulation. (2002)
- ^Willoughby DS, et al. Effects of 7 days of arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on blood flow, plasma L-arginine, nitric oxide metabolites, and asymmetric dimethyl arginine after resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2011)
- ^ ab c d Schwedhelm E, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2008)
- ^Ochiai M, et al. Short-term effects of L-citrulline supplementation on arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. Int J Cardiol. (2012)
- ^Bode-Böger SM, et al. L-arginine induces nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in patients with critical limb ischemia. A randomized, controlled study. Circulation. (1996)
- ^Sydow K, et al. Central role of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species in nitroglycerin tolerance and cross-tolerance. J Clin Invest. (2004)
- ^Witte DR, et al. Measurement of flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery is affected by local elastic vessel wall properties in high-risk patients. Atherosclerosis. (2005)
- ^Lind L. Arterial compliance influences the measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation, but not acetylcholine-mediated forearm blood flow. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Atherosclerosis. (2007)
- ^ ab Vasilijevic A, et al. Beneficial effects of L-arginine nitric oxide-producing pathway in rats treated with alloxan. J Physiol. (2007)
- ^Méndez JD, Hernández Rde H. L-arginine and polyamine administration protect beta-cells against alloxan diabetogenic effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Pharmacother. (2005)
- ^ ab Mohan IK, Das UN. Effect of L-arginine-nitric oxide system on chemical-induced diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med. (1998)
- ^Lindsay RM, et al. N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester reduces the incidence of IDDM in BB/E rats. Diabetes. (1995)
- ^Kaneto H, et al. Apoptotic cell death triggered by nitric oxide in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. (1995)
- ^DiMagno MJ, et al. Secretagogue-stimulated pancreatic secretion is differentially regulated by constitutive NOS isoforms in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2004)
- ^ ab c Monti LD, et al. Effect of a long-term oral l-arginine supplementation on glucose metabolism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. (2012)
- ^Tang WH, et al. Diminished global arginine bioavailability and increased arginine catabolism as metabolic profile of increased cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2009)
- ^Sourij H, et al. Arginine bioavailability ratios are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients referred to coronary angiography. Atherosclerosis. (2011)
- ^Jabłecka A, et al. The effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on fasting glucose, HbA1c, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2012)
- ^ ab Álvares TS, et al. L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects. Sports Med. (2011)
- ^Long JH, et al. Arginine supplementation induces myoblast fusion via augmentation of nitric oxide production. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. (2006)
- ^Maxwell AJ, et al. L-arginine enhances aerobic exercise capacity in association with augmented nitric oxide production. J Appl Physiol. (2001)
- ^Schaefer A, et al. L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. Int J Sports Med. (2002)
- ^Wax B, et al. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)
- ^Abel T, et al. Influence of chronic supplementation of arginine aspartate in endurance athletes on performance and substrate metabolism - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Sports Med. (2005)
- ^Colombani PC, et al. Chronic arginine aspartate supplementation in runners reduces total plasma amino acid level at rest and during a marathon run. Eur J Nutr. (1999)
- ^McConell GK. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2007)
- ^McKnight JR, et al. Beneficial effects of L-arginine on reducing obesity: potential mechanisms and important implications for human health. Amino Acids. (2010)
- ^ ab c d e Zajac A, et al. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)
- ^ ab c d Kanaley JA. Growth hormone, arginine and exercise. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2008)
- ^Oral arginine attenuates the growth hormone response to resistance exercise.
- ^ ab Marcell TJ, et al. Oral arginine does not stimulate basal or augment exercise-induced GH secretion in either young or old adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (1999)
- ^ ab Borst SE, Millard WJ, Lowenthal DT. Growth hormone, exercise, and aging: the future of therapy for the frail elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. (1994)
- ^ ab Fogelholm GM, et al. Low-dose amino acid supplementation: no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weightlifters. Int J Sport Nutr. (1993)
- ^Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY. Regulated recovery of pulsatile growth hormone secretion from negative feedback: a preclinical investigation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2011)
- ^Veldhuis JD, et al. Neurophysiological regulation and target-tissue impact of the pulsatile mode of growth hormone secretion in the human. Growth Horm IGF Res. (2001)
- ^Besset A, et al. Increase in sleep related GH and Prl secretion after chronic arginine aspartate administration in man. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). (1982)
- ^Barbul A, et al. Arginine enhances wound healing and lymphocyte immune responses in humans. Surgery. (1990)
- ^Shi HP, et al. Supplemental L-arginine enhances wound healing in diabetic rats. Wound Repair Regen. (2003)
- ^Debats IB, et al. Role of arginine in superficial wound healing in man. Nitric Oxide. (2009)
- ^Shi HP, et al. Supplemental dietary arginine enhances wound healing in normal but not inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. Surgery. (2000)
- ^Shi HP, et al. Effect of supplemental ornithine on wound healing. J Surg Res. (2002)
- ^Campbell B, et al. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in trained adult men. Nutrition. (2006)
- ^Cynober L, et al. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, ornithine hydrochloride, and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. (1990)
- ^ ab c Moinard C, et al. Dose-ranging effects of citrulline administration on plasma amino acids and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects: the Citrudose pharmacokinetic study. Br J Nutr. (2008)
- ^Rougé C, et al. Manipulation of citrulline availability in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. (2007)
- ^Thibault R, et al. Oral citrulline does not affect whole body protein metabolism in healthy human volunteers: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Clin Nutr. (2011)
- ^Sureda A, et al. L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2010)
- ^Isidori A, Lo Monaco A, Cappa M. A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acids. Curr Med Res Opin. (1981)
- ^Shao A, Hathcock JN. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. (2008)
- ^Hellier MD, Holdsworth CD, Perrett D. Dibasic amino acid absorption in man. Gastroenterology. (1973)
- ^Izzo AA, Mascolo N, Capasso F. Nitric oxide as a modulator of intestinal water and electrolyte transport. Dig Dis Sci. (1998)