Ornithine is a chemical called an amino acid. It is made in the body. It can also be made in a laboratory. People use it as a medicine.
Ornithine is commonly used by mouth for improving athletic performance. It is also used for weight loss, wound healing, and to increase sleep quality. But there is limited scientific research to support these other uses.
Don't confuse ornithine with ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) or L-Ornithine-L-Aspartate.
Is a Form of:
Improving athletic performance
Also Known As:
Chlorhydrate d'Ornithine, L-Ornithine, L-Ornithine HCl, L-Ornithine Hydrochloride
How Does It Work?
It's not known how ornithine might work for medical uses. However, ornithine might help to increase levels of the amino acid, arginine. It might also increase levels of hormones that increase muscle size.
- Athletic performance.Taking ornithine by mouth might reduce fatigue and improve measures of athletic performance such as speed, strength, and power in some people. Taking ornithine in combination with arginine also seems to improve strength and power in male weightlifters.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For athletic performance: 1 gram twice/day for 7 days, then 3 grams with breakfast and lunch prior to exercise or athletic event. A single dose of ornithine hydrochloride 0.1 gram/kg taken prior to exercise or athletic event has also been used. Some people may take 1 gram of ornithine with 1 gram of arginine per day.
Ornithine Supplements Frequently Asked Questions
What is ornithine used for?
Ornithine is used for improving athletic performance, reducing glutamine poisoning in the treatment of a brain condition due to liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy), and for wound healing.
What does arginine and ornithine do?
Ornithine, arginine and citrulline are also related to ammonia detoxification in the liver. For instance, ornithine and arginine promote the secretion of growth hormone, which enhances protein synthesis, and therefore these amino acids supplements are expected to aid muscle hypertrophy.
Does L ornithine help you sleep?
L-ornithine helps manage fatigue by stabilizing energy levels and promoting better sleep.
What foods contain ornithine?
Ornithine is present in fish and cheese, but also in corbicula (a freshwater clam), which contains considerably more ornithine than other foods. Ornithine is absorbed via the intestinal tract and incorporated into liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle .
How much L ornithine should I take?
How much L-Ornithine should you take? L-Ornithine supplementation (as hydrochloride), or L-Ornithine HCL, may be added to liquid or as part of a blend at 1.5g per serving to be used 1-3 times on a daily basis.
Where is ornithine found?
Ornithine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in meat, fish, dairy and eggs. Ornithine is one of the key reactants in the urea cycle that is responsible for 80% of the nitrogen excretion in the body.
Is ornithine an amino acid?
Ornithine is a chemical called an amino acid. It is made in the body. It can also be made in a laboratory. People use it as a medicine.
Is ornithine an essential amino acid?
A non-essential and nonprotein amino acid, ornithine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. Ornithine plays a central role in the urea cycle and is important for the disposal of excess nitrogen (ammonia).
What is the other name of ornithine cycle?
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea (NH2)2CO from ammonia (NH3). This cycle occurs in ureotelic organisms.
What is ornithine transcarbamylase?
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. Ammonia, which is formed when proteins are broken down in the body, is toxic if the levels become too high. This neonatal-onset form of the disorder usually affects males; it is very rare in females.
What is ornithine HCL?
L-Ornithine HCL. ... L-Ornithine is an important component in the urea cycle. It plays a key role for ammonia metabolism. It is widely used as an intermediate. For use in dietary supplements, food and beverages.
Where is ornithine transcarbamylase located?
Ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC) or OCT (EC 2.1. 3.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of citrulline formation from l-ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate (Figure 23.9). In mammals it is almost exclusively located in the mitochondria of hepatocytes and is part of the urea cycle.
What is OTC deficiency?
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. Ammonia, which is formed when proteins are broken down in the body, is toxic if the levels become too high. The nervous system is especially sensitive to the effects of excess ammonia.
What is OTC disease symptoms?
Excess ammonia, which is a neurotoxin, travels to the central nervous system through the blood, resulting in the symptoms and physical findings associated with OTC deficiency. Symptoms include vomiting, refusal to eat, progressive lethargy, and coma.
- ^ a b c d e f Demura S, et al. The effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on performance during incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercise and ammonia metabolism during and after exercise. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
- ^ a b Bommarius AS, Makryaleas K, Drauz K. An enzymatic route to L-ornithine from L-arginine--activation and stabilization studies on L-arginase. Biomed Biochim Acta. (1991)
- ^ a b Bommarius AS, Drauz K. An enzymatic route to L-ornithine from arginine--activation, selectivity and stabilization of L-arginase. Bioorg Med Chem. (1994)
- ^ Brusilow SW, Maestri NE. Urea cycle disorders: diagnosis, pathophysiology, and therapy. Adv Pediatr. (1996)
- ^ a b Metoki K, Hommes FA. A possible rate limiting factor in urea synthesis by isolated hepatocytes: the transport of ornithine into hepatocytes and mitochondria. Int J Biochem. (1984)
- ^ a b Häberle J, et al. Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders. Orphanet J Rare Dis. (2012)
- ^ Choi DE, et al. Hyperammonemia in a patient with late-onset ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency. J Korean Med Sci. (2012)
- ^ Tuchman M, et al. Mutations and polymorphisms in the human ornithine transcarbamylase gene. Hum Mutat. (2002)
- ^ Applegarth DA, Toone JR, Lowry RB. Incidence of inborn errors of metabolism in British Columbia, 1969-1996. Pediatrics. (2000)
- ^ a b Targeted cellular metabolism for cancer chemotherapy with recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes.
- ^ Wallace HM. The physiological role of the polyamines. Eur J Clin Invest. (2000)
- ^ Wallace HM, Fraser AV, Hughes A. A perspective of polyamine metabolism. Biochem J. (2003)
- ^ a b Jones ME. Conversion of glutamate to ornithine and proline: pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a possible modulator of arginine requirements. J Nutr. (1985)
- ^ a b Grimble GK. Adverse gastrointestinal effects of arginine and related amino acids. J Nutr. (2007)
- ^ a b c Ornithine ingestion and growth hormone release in bodybuilders.
- ^ a b c d e f g Sugino T, et al. L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism. Nutr Res. (2008)
- ^ a b c Cynober L, et al. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, ornithine hydrochloride, and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. (1990)
- ^ MacLean DA, et al. Plasma and muscle amino acid and ammonia responses during prolonged exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. (1991)
- ^ Sahlin K, Katz A, Broberg S. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise. Am J Physiol. (1990)
- ^ Mutch BJ, Banister EW. Ammonia metabolism in exercise and fatigue: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (1983)
- ^ a b Nybo L, et al. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol. (2005)
- ^ Graham TE, MacLean DA. Ammonia and amino acid metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. (1992)
- ^ Hirai T, et al. Metabolic inter-organ relations by exercise of fed rat: carbohydrates, ketone body, and nitrogen compounds in splanchnic vessels. Physiol Behav. (1995)
- ^ Elam RP, et al. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. (1989)
- ^ Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: diagnosis, clinical signiﬁcance and recommendations.
- ^ Szerb JC, Butterworth RF. Effect of ammonium ions on synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Prog Neurobiol. (1992)
- ^ a b Raabe W. Synaptic transmission in ammonia intoxication. Neurochem Pathol. (1987)
- ^ Butterworth RF. Hepatic encephalopathy and brain edema in acute hepatic failure: does glutamate play a role. Hepatology. (1997)
- ^ Morgan MH, Read AE, Speller DC. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy with metronidazole. Gut. (1982)
- ^ a b Staedt U, et al. Effects of ornithine aspartate on plasma ammonia and plasma amino acids in patients with cirrhosis. A double-blind, randomized study using a four-fold crossover design. J Hepatol. (1993)
- ^ a b Kircheis G, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusions in patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Hepatology. (1997)
- ^ Ahmad I, et al. L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusion efficacy in hepatic encephalopathy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. (2008)
- ^ a b c Stauch S, et al. Oral L-ornithine-L-aspartate therapy of chronic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Hepatol. (1998)
- ^ a b Soárez PC, et al. A critical analysis of studies assessing L-ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA) in hepatic encephalopathy treatment. Arq Gastroenterol. (2009)
- ^ Rees CJ, et al. Effect of L-ornithine-L-aspartate on patients with and without TIPS undergoing glutamine challenge: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. Gut. (2000)
- ^ a b Jiang Q, et al. L-Ornithine-l-aspartate in the management of hepatic encephalopathy: a meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. (2009)
- ^ a b Evain-Brion D, et al. Simultaneous study of somatotrophic and corticotrophic pituitary secretions during ornithine infusion test. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1982)
- ^ a b c Zajac A, et al. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)
- ^ Psychologic and Neural Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion.
- ^ a b c Kokubo T, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the effects of L-ornithine on salivary cortisol and feelings of fatigue of flushers the morning after alcohol consumption. Biopsychosoc Med. (2013)
- ^ a b c Cynober L. Metabolic interaction between ornithine and alpha-ketoglutarate as a basis for the action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate. Clin Nutr. (1993)
- ^ Morowitz H, Peterson E, Chang S. The synthesis of glutamic acid in the absence of enzymes: implications for biogenesis. Orig Life Evol Biosph. (1995)
- ^ Maughan Q, Miller SL. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate. Orig Life Evol Biosph. (1999)
- ^ Saavedra-Molina A, Piña E. Ornithine uptake by rat liver mitochondria: effect of calcium and arginine. Biochem Int. (1987)
- ^ Saavedra-Molina A, Piña E. Stimulation of L-ornithine uptake and L-citrulline and urea biosynthesis by D-arginine. Biochem Int. (1991)
- ^ Acharya SK, et al. Efficacy of L-ornithine L-aspartate in acute liver failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology. (2009)
- ^ Ndraha S, Hasan I, Simadibrata M. The effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate and branch chain amino acids on encephalopathy and nutritional status in liver cirrhosis with malnutrition. Acta Med Indones. (2011)
- ^ Morris SM Jr. Regulation of enzymes of the urea cycle and arginine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. (2002)
- ^ Krebs HA, Hems R, Lund P. Accumulation of amino acids by the perfused rat liver in the presence of ethanol. Biochem J. (1973)
- ^ Rejniuk VL, Schafer TV, Ivnitsky JJ. Ammonia potentiates the lethal effect of ethanol on rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. (2008)
- ^ Cascales C, Cascales M, Santos-Ruiz A. Effect of chronic ethanol or acetaldehyde on hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase. Rev Esp Fisiol. (1985)
- ^ Maier KP, et al. Urea-cycle enzymes in normal liver and in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Eur J Clin Invest. (1974)
- ^ Goedde HW, Harada S, Agarwal DP. Racial differences in alcohol sensitivity: a new hypothesis. Hum Genet. (1979)
- ^ Wernerman J, et al. Glutamine and ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate but not branched-chain amino acids reduce the loss of muscle glutamine after surgical trauma. Metabolism. (1989)
- ^ a b Le Bricon T, et al. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism after enteral administration in burn patients: bolus compared with continuous infusion. Am J Clin Nutr. (1997)
- ^ Kirk SJ, et al. Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings. Surgery. (1993)
- ^ Kudsk KA, et al. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma. An immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg. (1996)
- ^ Ziegler TR, et al. Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Intern Med. (1992)
- ^ Hall JC, Heel K, McCauley R. Glutamine. Br J Surg. (1996)
- ^ Donati L, et al. Nutritional and clinical efficacy of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate in severe burn patients. Clin Nutr. (1999)
- ^ Coudray-Lucas C, et al. Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate improves wound healing in severe burn patients: a prospective randomized double-blind trial versus isonitrogenous controls. Crit Care Med. (2000)
- ^ Cynober LA. The use of alpha-ketoglutarate salts in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (1999)
- ^ Arginine: beyond protein.
- ^ Colonic secretory effect in response to enteral feeding in humans.
- ^ Colonic responses to enteral tube feeding.