Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs.

Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, Huntington's chorea, Tourette's disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.

Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports.

Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas.

Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma.


Is a Form of:


Primary Functions:

Liver diseases

Also Known As:

Bitartre de Choline, Chlorure de Choline, Choline Bitartrate, Choline Chloride

How Does It Work?

Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.


  • Build up of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis).People who receive nutrition through the vein can develop choline deficiency. Low blood levels of choline can cause fat to accumulate in the liver. Giving choline intravenously (by IV) helps treat this condition.
  • Asthma. Taking choline by mouth seems to lessen symptoms and the number of days that asthma is a problem for some people. It also seems to reduce the need to use bronchodilators.
  • Birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects). Early research suggests that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube birth defect.

Recommended Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For asthma: 500-1000 mg three times daily.

An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day. For children 1-3 years the AI is 200 mg per day; 4-8 years, 250 mg per day; 9-13 years, 375 mg per day; for infants less than 6 months, 125 mg per day; infants 7-12 months, 150 mg per day.

Daily Upper Intake Levels (UL, the highest level of intake that is not likely to cause harm) for choline are: 1 gram daily for children 1-8 years, 2 grams for children 9-13 years, 3 grams for children 14-18 years, and 3.5 grams for adults over 18 years of age.

Choline Supplements Frequently Asked Questions

What does choline supplement do?

Choline is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods and available as a dietary supplement. In addition, choline is needed to produce acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for memory, mood, muscle control, and other brain and nervous system functions.

Are choline supplements safe?

Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for adults.

What are the symptoms of choline deficiency?

The most common symptoms of choline deficiency are fatty liver and/or hemorrhagic kidney necrosis. Consuming choline rich foods usually relieve these deficiency symptoms.

Does choline make you gain weight?

Most weight-loss supplements contain caffeine, which increases the metabolic rate. This practice is not healthy, since caffeine also causes nervousness, insomnia, nausea and increased blood pressure. The amine choline is a member of the vitamin B-complex family and it is naturally produced by the body to burn fat.

Do avocados have choline?

According to NHANES data, the average avocado consumption is one-half fruit, which provides for a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of significant levels of the following: dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K1, folate, vitamin B-6, niacin, pantothenic acid, 

Should I take choline?

The Linus Pauling Institute supports the recommendation by the Food and Nutrition Board of 550 mg/day for adult men and 425 mg/day for adult women. A varied diet should provide enough choline for most people, but strict vegetarians who consume no milk or eggs may be at risk of inadequate choline intake.

Can choline reverse fatty liver?

Choline was shown to completely reverse fatty liver in a small study of participants who had the disease. Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine or TMG, is a cheap and effective supplement that helps the body spare choline. Folate, in its methylated form, may also help, along with B6.

What foods contain choline?

Eggs, liver, and peanuts, are especially rich in choline (27). Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, pasta, rice, and egg-based dishes (77). Spinach, beets, wheat, and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine (78).

Which nuts are high in choline?

91 Nuts and Seeds Highest in Choline

  • Pumpkin Seeds Salted. 89.7mg (16% DV) in 1 cup, without shell.
  • NutsPistachio Nuts Dry Roasted With Salt Added. 87.8mg (16% DV) in 1 cup.
  • Mixed Seeds.
  • Mixed NutsWith Peanuts Unsalted.
  • NutsCashew Nuts Oil Roasted With Salt Added.
  • Nuts
  • Mixed Nuts
  • Sunflower Seeds Plain Salted.

How long does it take for choline to work?

In humans choline bitartrate increases choline blood plasma levels within 1 hour after ingestion and with brain concentrations peaking around 2 hours until at least up to 3 hours after ingestion. Choline's effects on the cholinergic peripheral system peaks between 1 and 2 hours after ingestion.

Is choline good for anxiety?

Choline. Key to regulating anxiety, learning, and memory, choline is a brain-builder. Choline deficiency increases your risk of heart disease, liver disease (specifically “fatty liver”) and brain disorders like depression, anxiety disorders, and Alzheimer's disease.

Does choline help you sleep?

Choline treatment for sleep disturbances

Plasma choline levels are directly affected by daily choline intake. Exploring treatment for sleepiness and sleep disturbances with choline is important due to the overlap of sleep disturbances/ memory associated with choline.

Can you take choline everyday?

An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day.

Does choline give you energy?

(1987) reported that choline plays an important role in the metabolism of fat; it breaks fat down for use as an energy source. This action of choline makes it valuable in preventing conditions like fatty liver or excess fat in the blood.

Will choline help with weight loss?

Choline plays an important role in controlling fat and cholesterol buildup in the body. It has even been suggested that choline helps the body burn fat, which may result in easier weight loss and better metabolic health. And healthy solutions, like getting more choline in the diet, may make a difference for some.

How can I get choline without eggs?

If you dislike eggs or have an allergy, focus your weekly grocery list on other foods high in choline while increasing weekly intake of foods rich in betaine, like beets and spinach to lower your choline requirements.

Does coffee contain choline?

A cup of coffee contains about 7 mg, which is a drop in the daily-requirement bucket (420 mg for men, 320 mg for women). A cup of coffee also has small amounts of niacin (0.5 mg) and choline (6.2 mg).

Is Turkey high in choline?

Turkey meat contains more Choline than 46% of the foods. 100 grams of Turkey meat contains 16% of the Choline that you need to consume daily. Beef contains more Choline than 45% of the foods. 100 grams of Beef contains 15% of the Choline that you need to consume daily.

What food has the most choline?

Eggs, liver, and peanuts, are especially rich in choline. Major contributors to choline in the American diet are meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, pasta, rice, and egg-based dishes. Spinach, beets, wheat, and shellfish are also good sources of the choline metabolite, betaine.

Does choline cause depression?

Large amounts (about 20 g) of choline may cause other side effects. These can include dizziness, low blood pressure (hypotension), and fishy body odor. They can also include depression and heart rhythm problems. Choline may cause depression in some people.

Why is choline bad for you?

Can choline be harmful? Getting too much choline can cause a fishy body odor, vomiting, heavy sweating and salivation, low blood pressure, and liver damage. Some research also suggests that high amounts of choline may increase the risk of heart disease.

Can you take too much choline?

Too Much Can Be Harmful

Consuming too much choline has been associated with unpleasant and potentially harmful side effects. These include drops in blood pressure, sweating, fishy body odor, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting (65). The daily upper limit for adults is 3,500 mg per day.

Clinical Studies